Prius PHV Strasbourg 2010: Toyota
- The Prius Plug-in Hybrid
- Limited lease programme
- The Future
— Toyota's 40 year quest for sustainable mobility
— 2.3 million Toyota hybrid vehicles already sold worldwide, accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales
— Modular Hybrid Synergy Drive® paves the way for diverse eco cars
— Flexible Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles — 'best of both worlds' extended EV range with no constraints
Heritage — a 40 year quest for sustainable mobility
Although the reduction of CO2 emissions did not become a mainstream global issue until the 1990s (the 1997 Kyoto Protocol outlining specific numeric goals), Toyota has, in fact, been researching and developing environmentally-friendly mobility solutions for over 40 years in the quest for the ultimate eco car.
After addressing the possibilities of various types of hybrid systems in several research and development programmes, Toyota decided to focus its efforts on realising mass-production hybrid vehicles that could be made available to society at large.
This early vision has since been entirely vindicated. The world's first mass-produced full hybrid vehicle, the Prius, was launched in Japan in 1997 and in Europe in 2000. Its unique Hybrid Synergy Drive® (HSD) powertrain established a major industry milestone in sustainable mobility and its name, meaning 'to go before' in Latin, quickly became symbolic of a car that was launched even before environmental awareness had become a mainstream social issue.
Today, while other manufacturers are only beginning to develop hybrid technology, Toyota has already launched the third generation of its multiple award-winning Prius.
The launch of the Auris HSD presages the introduction of as many as 10 new Toyota hybrid models globally by the early 2010s, with a target of achieving worldwide annual sales of one million hybrid vehicles within the same time frame.
Toyota has already sold 2.3 million hybrid vehicles worldwide (accounting for 80% of global hybrid sales), contributing to a reduction in automotive CO2 emissions of about 12 million tons and giving the company an unquestionable lead in the drive towards sustainable mobility.
Modular Hybrid Synergy Drive® — the core technology platform
Though convinced that Hybrid Synergy Drive® is the core technology platform for the future, Toyota believes it is important to follow more than one path in the quest for environmentally-friendly mobility solutions.
Hybrid Synergy Drive® has been specifically designed to be modular and, adaptable to diverse energy sources, may be readily used in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV), Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles (FCHV).
Plug-in hybrid technology — extended EV range with no constraints
70% of Europeans are expected to live in urban areas by 2015. As a result, the demand for environmentally-friendly, short distance commuter vehicles is expected to increase, and industry attention is now focused on electricity.
Electricity has high potential as an alternative to oil, may be produced from renewable sources such as solar, wind, tidal and hydro-electric power, can be readily supplied, and is carbon neutral at the point of consumption.
In this context, the environmental merits of EVs as urban commuters are well proven, and their future in providing sustainable mobility is assured.
However, the further development of such vehicles is currently handicapped by the weight, size and cost of the large capacity batteries required to offer satisfactory range, and the lack of an adequate recharging infrastructure.
In focusing on PHV technology, Toyota has addressed both of these issues. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid is a full hybrid vehicle in which both the electric motor and petrol engine can drive the wheels. A fully electric, EV mode is employed for city driving, while the hybrid powertrain's petrol engine awards the car true long range capability.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid
— Plug-in Hybrid technology — a significant expansion of Hybrid Synergy Drive®
— Expanded, 20km EV driving range with zero CO2, NOX and particulate emissions
— First Toyota full hybrid vehicle application of lithium-ion batteries
— 136 DIN hp delivers 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds and 180 km/h top speed — performance to match any conventional hatchback
— Combined fuel consumption of only 2.6 l/100 km — a reduction of 30% over that of the Prius
— Extraordinarily low CO2 emissions of just 59 g/km
PHV technology — a significant expansion of Hybrid Synergy Drive®
Setting a new benchmark in environmentally-friendly mobility, the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents a significant expansion of the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system's capabilities.
Building on the core technology of Toyota's renowned full hybrid powertrain, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid addresses the specific needs of urban-based customers with a significantly extended, fully-electric EV driving range for shorter journeys, while the hybrid powertrain's petrol engine awards the Prius Plug-in Hybrid true long range capability.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid delivers impressive, seamless acceleration and remarkably quiet operation, while returning unparalleled fuel efficiency and the lowest possible emissions.
Performance — unparalleled fuel efficiency and emissions
The Hybrid Synergy Drive's® powertrain generates a total system power output of 136 DIN hp, offering performance to match any conventional 2.0 litre diesel or petrol hatchback. The Prius Plug-in Hybrid will accelerate seamlessly from 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds, and on to a top speed of 180 km/h.
Thanks to its extended EV range, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid returns a remarkably low fuel consumption figure of only 2.6 l/100 km and CO2 emissions of just 59 g in the European homologation combined cycle — a reduction of 30% over that of the Prius.
In addition, the new PHV generates significantly lower NOx emissions than diesel engined cars of comparable performance, and zero particulates.
When operating in its extended EV mode, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid generates zero CO2 and NOx emissions, driving for up to 20 kilometres at speeds of up to 100 km/h, dependant on battery charge and driving conditions.
Hybrid Synergy Drive® — PHV system architecture
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid adopts the same full hybrid system architecture as the normal Prius, with the additional benefit of a larger battery that can be plugged-in and recharged from an external power source.
Hence, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid features a 1.8 litre VVT-i petrol engine, a powerful electric motor, a generator, a high performance lithium-ion battery and a power control unit. A power split device employs a planetary gear set to combine and re-allocate power from the engine, electric motor and generator according to operational requirements. The full hybrid drive system's seamless, E-CVT continuously variable transmission is controlled by Shift-by-Wire technology.
Powered by the lithium-ion battery, the electric motor works in tandem with the petrol engine to boost acceleration during normal driving. Power allocation is constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel efficiency.
The electric motor alone powers the driven wheels when the Prius Plug-in Hybrid is operating in EV mode. An EV range of up to 20 km is dictated by battery charge and driving conditions. However, once the EV battery charge has been consumed, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid automatically operates as a full hybrid until recharged from an external power supply, thus eradicating the limited range constraints of a conventional electric vehicle.
Maximising the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system's efficiency, the electric motor also acts as a high-output generator during deceleration and under braking, to effect regenerative braking. Normally wasted as heat, kinetic energy is recovered as electrical energy for storage in the high performance lithium-ion battery.
Lithium-ion batteries — a Toyota full hybrid first
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid marks the introduction of lithium-ion batteries in a Toyota hybrid vehicle for two key reasons: firstly, having superior volume energy density, they are more compact than their nickel-metal hydride counterparts, offering a significant increase in EV driving range with minimal adverse weight or packaging issues. Secondly, they may be recharged far more quickly than nickel-metal hydride alternatives.
Two thirds of the battery pack must be recharged through connection to an external, plug-in electricity supply. The remaining third is integrated within the Prius Plug-in Hybrid's full hybrid drive system in the conventional manner, and is constantly recharged during normal system operation.
The complete battery pack of a Prius Plug-in Hybrid can be fully recharged in 1.5 hours from a standard, 230V household outlet.
Enhanced Eco driving experience
From start up and at speeds of less than 100 km/h, the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid automatically operates in EV mode, driving under electric motor power to offer an extraordinarily smooth and quite ride. Requiring full hybrid technology, this unique driving mode is not available to drivers of mild hybrid vehicles.
With vehicle range dictated by battery charge, the EV drive mode allows for urban driving with minimal noise and zero CO2 and NOX emissions for up to 20 kilometres, contributing to a significant reduction in the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid's overall fuel consumption.
Two alternative, 'on-demand' drive modes - ECO and POWER - may be selected to further increase driving efficiency, performance and fuel economy.
In ECO mode, throttle response to aggressive accelerator pedal inputs is reduced and air-conditioning control optimized for improved fuel economy. Depending on driving conditions, the ECO mode can help drivers achieve a perceptible reduction in fuel consumption.
The POWER mode also modifies the response of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid to throttle inputs, here boosting power to improve acceleration and enhance driving pleasure. The POWER mode provides a 25% higher throttle response to accelerator pedal input.
Extensive driving support monitors
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid features comprehensive Eco driving support for those who wish to adopt even more environmentally-friendly driving techniques. Various new functions have been incorporated in the Eco Drive Monitor from the normal Prius, allowing customers to maximise the benefits of the PHV's extended EV driving range.
The Hybrid System Indicator dial shows the point at which the engine will start under acceleration, allowing the driver to moderate throttle inputs and maximise the use of the EV mode.
The Energy Monitor - which displays the current operating conditions of the engine and the flow of electric power in real time - incorporates an EV driving range display, showing how far the Prius Plug-in Hybrid can travel under electric motor power alone with the remaining battery charge.
In addition, an EV Driving Ratio indicator shows how much of the total distance driven so far has been under electric motor power alone.
In combination, these functions help drivers to develop relaxed, fuel efficient driving techniques and maximise both EV driving and overall hybrid system efficiency.
Unique plug-in features exclusive to PHV
Making full use of a PHV design that accesses electricity from an external power source, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid features a unique, Remote Climate Control System.
This is a pre-air conditioning system, capable of both heating and cooling the vehicle interior when the car is plugged in, offering occupants a comfortable cabin temperature from the moment they get into the vehicle. It also improves the overall efficiency of HSD, by minimising air conditioner energy consumption during vehicle start up, further lowering fuel consumption.
An innovative graphic display of a growing forest lets customers see in real terms the benefits of battery charging for CO2 emissions reduction.
The computer graphic image is based on how much CO2 is absorbed by a tree in a one year period. Whilst the vehicle is plugged in, the system calculates the reduction in CO2 emissions effected by the use of an external power source, determines the equivalent number of trees, and gradually grows them one at a time in the display. As more trees are grown, a forest is formed to show the driver's contribution to environmental preservation.
Limited lease programme
— Ongoing since 2007 — Toyota PHV evaluation in partnership with EDF
— Worldwide limited lease of 600 Prius Plug-in Hybrids in 2010, of which 200 will be distributed throughout Europe.
— European programme begins with about one hundred PHVs in Strasbourg, France — key partnership and highest concentration of Prius Plug-in Hybrids
— Simultaneous creation of European recharging infrastructure by EDF and subsidiaries in office and public car parks, public roads and users' homes
Background — ongoing PHV evaluation in partnership with EDF, since 2007
At a ceremony in Tokyo on 14th December 2009, Toyota handed the Mayor of Strasbourg, Roland Ries, the key to the first new generation Prius Plug-in Hybrid. This event marked the start of a worldwide limited lease project involving some 600 vehicles, of which 200 will be distributed throughout Europe.
This is the second phase of Toyota's global PHV viability verification project. The first phase was announced by the company in July 2007, and involved about 20 vehicles, of which four in Europe. This first phase, marking the start of Toyota's ongoing partnership with French energy company EDF, was dedicated to intensive research and development through real life road trials in France and the UK, with a specific focus:
— on the relationship between the new technology involved and its users
— and on research into the development of a public, private and company recharging infrastructure.
The limited lease programme
Toyota's European Prius Plug-in Hybrid limited lease project starts in Strasbourg, France, at the end of April 2010, with the three year leasing about 100 Prius Plug-in Hybrids by private companies and other organisations, including government bodies, local authorities, energy providers and a car sharing company.
Some 20 vehicles will be introduced in the UK, and another 20 in Germany. The remaining vehicles will be dispatched to other European countries including Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Belgium, Netherlands, Italy, Portugal and Spain.
Toyota also has plans to introduce the Prius Plug-in Hybrid on a global scale, with participants including Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan and the United States of America.
The ultimate goal of the limited lease project is to bring the Prius-Plug-in Hybrid to the market in a few years.
Real world driver behaviour analysis
Both in Europe and around the world, the limited lease programme will allow Toyota to fine tune its ongoing PHV research and development. The gathering of real world vehicle-use feedback will enable the company to better understand customer expectations of plug-in technology, while spurring the development of a public access charging station infrastructure.
All Prius Plug-in Hybrids will be equipped with data retrieval devices which will monitor everyday user activities such as when, and how often, the vehicle is charged, the extent of battery depletion at the time of charging, trip duration, percentage of EV use and EV range, and fuel efficiency.
Strasbourg — chosen by Toyota and EDF as a key viability project partner
The city of Strasbourg, France, has been chosen as the key viability project partner by Toyota and EDF in the investigation of market acceptability of PHV technology.
The city of Strasbourg has had a notably advanced mobility strategy in place for a long time, making it the ideal location for a large-scale demonstration of the urban-friendly practicalities of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid.
« This project is an international recognition of our initiatives towards sustainable mobility, which started more than 20 years ago » said Roland Ries, Mayor of Strasbourg. « The arrival of these plug-in hybrid vehicles in our urban landscape will open a new chapter in our transport policy. »
The project has received financial support via the Research Fund for Low Carbon Vehicles managed by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency, ADEME.
EDF will create a complimentary recharging infrastructure. It will install charging points at the facilities of project partners, in public parking lots, on public roads and reinforced plugs at users' homes.
— Prius Plug-in Hybrid paves the way for diverse Hybrid Synergy Drive® applications and co-existing eco car variants
— Advances in battery technology, and charging and fuelling infrastructures fundamental to Electric Vehicle (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV) development
— Electric Vehicle technology — providing short- to mid-term sustainable mobility
— Hydrogen fuel cell technology — the potential to change the face of motoring forever
Prius Plug-in Hybrid — paving the way for diverse applications of Hybrid Synergy Drive®
Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents just one further application of Hybrid Synergy Drive®, the core technology in Toyota's quest for sustainable mobility.
Rather than the former replacing the latter, both standard and Plug-in versions of the Prius full hybrid will co-exist on the market for the foreseeable future.
With the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid targeting the most environmentally conscientious, urban-based customers, it is expected to be some time before its sales outstrip those of the Prius itself.
Hybrid Synergy Drive® is readily adaptable to use in Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles (FCHV). However, the mass production of EVs and FCHVs remains dependent on two key factors: a significant advance in battery technology, and the provision of comprehensive recharging and refuelling infrastructures for both electric and hydrogen fuel cell powered vehicles.
Electric Vehicle Technology — providing short-to mid-term sustainable mobility
Toyota has already accumulated an unprecedented depth of knowledge and engineering capability in the field of electric vehicles (EVs). Ten years ago, some 1,900 RAV4 EV battery-electric vehicles were either sold or leased over the course of a three year test programme. Nearly half of these 160 km-driving range, large battery vehicles are still on the road.
However, even with a 160 km range, EVs as a primary mode of transportation do not offer what most customers see as true mobility- and the absence of a comprehensive recharging infrastructure continues to hinder market acceptance of the battery electric concept.
Nonetheless, through further advances in battery technology, and cooperation with governments, related organisations and other companies in charging infrastructure development, Toyota believes these obstacles will be overcome.
To that end, Toyota has continued with the development of short range EVs for commercialisation. At the 2009 Tokyo Motorshow, the company unveiled its FT-EV II concept, a small commuter EV with a top-speed of 100km/h and a driving range of over 90km. Toyota plans to launch a lithium-ion battery equipped EV by 2012 in the US.
Battery Technology — the key to true EV mobility
The battery is a key element in hybrid technology. There is no doubt that battery technology has progressed significantly in the 13 years since the introduction of the first Prius. Each successive generation has seen a reduction in battery pack size, weight and cost, yet improved efficiency.
However, challenges still remain. For instance, the cost of lithium-ion batteries needs to be reduced significantly, or a more affordable alternative found.
Fully committed to the most rapid possible advances in battery technology, Toyota established its own Battery Research Department in June 2008 and has been developing in-house battery technology since the early 1990s.
By September 2010, Toyota's successful joint-venture partnership with Panasonic EV Energy (PEVE) will have a production capacity of 1.1 million battery packs per year.
Fuel Cell Technology — the potential to change the face of motoring forever
With the potential to offer lasting solutions to environmental and energy source problems, Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles are considered by many to represent the closest thing yet to the ultimate eco-car.
Fuel cells produces electricity through a chemical reaction between hydrogen (stored in the vehicle) and oxygen (from the air), with no other emissions but water vapour.
A fuel cell can convert as much as 80% of hydrogen's energy into usable power - about twice the efficiency possible with current generation petrol engines.
Toyota began work on FCHVs in 1992. The company applies its own HSD technology to FCHV development, replacing petrol engines with fuel cells, and conventional fuel tanks with high pressure hydrogen counterparts.
Toyota's latest fuel cell hybrid, the FCHV-adv, received vehicle-type certification from Japan's Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport on June 3rd 2008. This vehicle can travel 830 kms on a single tank of hydrogen, emitting only water vapour.
Though a fuel cell vehicle emits no CO2, the emissions resulting from various hydrogen production methods must be considered for an accurate, well-to-wheel appraisal of FCHV energy efficiency and environmental impact.
Moreover, a smooth shift to a hydrogen-based society will be a significant undertaking. Reaching a consensus on how to produce hydrogen, how to deliver it and how to implement a fuelling infrastructure depends on the combined efforts of all sectors of society, including governments.
To that end - and in anticipation of the imminent commercialisation of a number of FCHVs - Toyota, Ford, Daimler, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai/Kia and Renault/Nissan signed a Letter of Understanding in September 2009 calling for oil and energy companies and government organisations to cooperate in the creation of hydrogen infrastructure networks of sufficient density in Europe, Japan, Korea and the United States by 2015.
In 2010, Toyota started a three-year Fuel Cell hybrid vehicle programme, involving 120 advanced FCHVs around the world, including Europe, to demonstrate the technology's performance, reliability and everyday practicality.
In 2010, Toyota joined the Clean Energy Partnership, an organisation supporting the development of fuel cell technology and hydrogen supply infrastructure in Germany. Toyota will contribute five FCHV-adv to the programme in Germany by 2011.
Our goal is to introduce this technology on the market in 2015.