Prius phv strasbourg 2010: edf
EDF, an actor in innovation in the field of "Low-Carbon Mobility"
EDF and "Low-Carbon Mobility"Transportation accounts for 27% of world energy consumption and 61% of petroleum consumption planet-wide. It remains one of main causes of atmospheric pollution in the world and is responsible for 23% of CO2 emissions.
The EDF Group is strongly committed to promoting electric vehicles to accompany its customers in moving towards modes of sustainable mobility in line with goals for reducing CO2 emissions and fighting pollution.
The emergence of electric mobility requires the development of batteries with greater and greater security and performance and the deployment of an appropriate charging infrastructure.
EDF possesses solid experience in operating electric vehicles and charging stations, recognized scientific and technological expertise with both batteries and infrastructures, and a capacity for production of low-carbon energy that is unique in Western Europe.
Active partnershipsThe Group has initiated a policy of active and open partnerships in the various technological solutions developed by automakers (both "pure" electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles) ith major players like Renault, PSA and Toyota.
A strong commitmentThe EDF Group has committed to acquiring 5,000 electric vehicles in France over the period 2011-2015. This commitment represents 100% of the vehicles slated to be replaced over a period of 5 years and capable of being substituted for with electric vehicles.
What can we expect from the development of electricity in transportation?—less dependency on petroleum fuels—per-kilometer fuel costs up to five times lower—8 to 10 times less CO2 emissions in France—an end to local pollutants, and thus considerable health benefits—a strong reduction in noise pollution—a new mode of mobility.EDF, leading the energy change
Today's world is faced with a major energy challenge: How to respond to growing needs in a context of climatic constraints and disappearing resources?
With its RandD capabilities, its expertise and experience in nuclear production as well as renewable energies, and its efficient-energy offerings, EDF offers competitive solutions for sustainably reconciling economic development and climate protection.
Who are we?—An integrated energy group (production, transport, distribution, trading and sale of energy) —The leading operator of nuclear generating stations in the world—Europe's leading electricity producer—France's leading electricity supplier—95% of our production in France emits no CO2—38 million customers worldwide, including nearly 28 million in France—161,000 employees around the world.
The issues facing us
- Securing energy supplies in France and in Europe. Faced with the increase in energy demand, and in particular for electrical energy (an expected rise of +1.6 per year in Europe through 2030), EDF, thanks to its installed base of nuclear and hydroelectric stations and its production from other renewable energy sources, enjoys a very low dependency on imported fuels.
- Contributing to the fight against greenhouse gases. We are already emitting five times less greenhouse gases than the average for European electricity producers.
EDF, benchmark supplier ofcompetitive and low-carbon fuelsAn electric vehicle powered by the French production base emits between 10 and 20 grams of CO2 per km*. On a European scale (taking in Germany, Poland, Portugal, and Greece, who still use coal extensively), the balance remains very favorable to electric, at 105 grams of CO2(3) per km, or 34% less than vehicles powered by internal-combustion engines(1).
In France, an internal-combustion vehicle emits an average of 160 grams of CO2 per km(1). Even if the goal is to reduce CO2 emissions from cars powered by petroleum fuels to 110 grams of CO2 per km in 2020(2), those emissions will remain an estimated six times higher than emissions from electric vehicles. That would still be an enormous difference, especially since with conventional petroleum running out, gasoline and diesel fuel production will very probably be relying more and more frequently on non-conventional petroleum (tar sands etc.), which is even more harmful to the environment than conventional petroleum.
With its ability to supply very-low-CO2 fuel to Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles, EDF is contributing to the emergence of clean solutions for transportation.
*Source: French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME)(1)French automotive market average for 2008. Emissions from "well to wheel" (source ADEME), or the equivalent of 140 g CO2/km "tank to wheel."(2)Or 90 g CO2/km tank to wheel(3)Well-to-wheel emissionsEDF is preparing the electric mobility of tomorrow with its partners
The EDF Group has initiated a policy of active and open partnerships in the various technological solutions developed by automakers.
Experiments to preparefor tomorrow's solutionsIn a context of increasing oil prices and increased environmental awareness on the part of the general public, the move towards electric mobility now seems irreversible.
Standards for vehicles and infrastructure are now being defined. EDF has chosen to associate with vehicle manufacturers to conduct experiments in order to validate hypotheses, test, and compare and evaluate the economic models and technical solutions proposed by vehicle manufacturers and the various other actors and operators involved — be they local governments, electricity distributors, managers of public spaces, etc.
Many questions remain as to the technologies tomorrow's electric vehicles will use. The industrial transition needs to be made between pre-series and mass production of Li-ion batteries, whose safety remains a delicate subject in the eyes of most experts. The economic model of tomorrow's individual electrical-propulsion vehicle remains to be validated. The cost of production, excluding the battery, of the vehicles will remain significantly higher — for an uncertain period — than that of internal-combustion vehicles. This additional cost will only be able to be compensated for, during the period of commercial launch, by tax or financial incentives. The high unit price of batteries will probably result in the emergence of a specific business model (leasing rather than purchase) before electricity can hope to compete with traditional fuels. The economic model and the modalities for deployment of charging infrastructures are also in the process of being defined. These models will have to take into account the life expectancy of batteries and of vehicles.
Strasbourg chosen by EDF and Toyota for experiment with about 100 Plug-in-Hybrid vehiclesThis operation constitutes a threefold world first due to:—its size, with some one hundred pre-series vehicles—the battery technology used (Lithium-ion)—the infrastructure deployed
It is the concrete result of a partnership agreement signed in March 2009 between EDF and Toyota for an experiment, to extend for three years, in businesses and publics entities in the Strasbourg region.
Future experiments to be conducted by the EDF GroupThe Strasbourg experiment with Toyota is the first in a series of experiments the EDF Group will conduct with other partners.
With other vehicle manufacturers, EDF will experiment with solutions for electric mobility that are complementary to PHVs:—electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures including, in addition to normal charging, fast charging spots and mechanical battery exchange—electric vehicles associated with charging infrastructures supplied by renewable energy sources in an insular context —predominantly electric PHVs
but also:—electric and plug-in hybrid buses .These projects are all candidates for the ADEME'S Call for Expression of Interest to qualify for financial support from the "Demonstrator Fund."EDF in the Service of Innovationin Electric Transportation
Recharging stations and batteries are two essential dimensions of electric mobility development: EDF is mobilising its know-how for research and innovations.
Recharging stations: an EDF expertiseRecharging stations play a crucial role in the development of electric vehicles. Thanks to years of investment in Research and Development and long-term cooperation with manufacturers of electric vehicles, then Plug-in-Hybrid vehicles, EDF is today an unchallenged expert when it comes to high-technology recharging systems.
It is in this capacity that EDF has been designated by the French government as the French industry leader in the French-German working group given the task of proposing what tomorrow's European connectors will look like.
Tomorrow's recharging stations will need to be:Safe—Dedicated equipment will prevent any risk of involuntary connection to a non-conforming installation—Equipment will be specifically designed to stand up to intensive use —Equipment will have to avoid any danger of electric shock to users and guarantee battery integrity.Smart—They will have to provide optimal charging of batteries and preserve their full life-expectancy potential —They will also have to optimize the charging period to avoid consumption peaks—They will have to enable detailed per-user billing, and thus comply with requirements for openness to competition between energy providers. Communicative—They will have to be capable of communicating with vehicles of all types thanks to standardized protocols —Among other capabilities, they will enable secure exchange of data having to do, for example, with identification of the vehicle, transfer of billing information, and the location of the nearest station as a function of remaining battery life. Available—They will have to correspond to users' use patterns and travel needs—Their geographical distribution will have to take into account the fact that recharging is done at home or at the workplace 90% of the time.European—Thanks to standardization at the European level, to which EDF is actively contributing, all drivers in the Union will be able to recharge using the same cable, regardless of the country they are in.
Batteries that go furtherThrough its Research and Development laboratories, EDF is an internationally recognized, historical expert in battery technologies.
Our development effort focuses on high-energy-density batteries. Our work and our collaborations concern Lithium-type batteries — which today appear to be the most promising technology —, nickel-electrode alkaline batteries, and sodium batteries. In the longer term, in partnership with major research centers, we are working on the energy-storage solutions of the future, in particular for electric-transportation applications.
Recognizing a good batteryFive criteria for evaluating a battery:
- Safety of use, an essential factor for the user and indispensable for guaranteeing the development of the market for electric vehicles
- Quantity of energy stored per unit of weight or volume (specific energy) measured in Watt-hours/ kilogram (Wh/kg) or Watt-hours per liter (Wh/l), which affects battery life
- The Instantaneous power it can provide for acceleration or absorb during braking with energy recovery, which determines driving comfort
- Its price per kilowatt-hour (kWh), which underpins the economic model for electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids using these batteries the level of this price is currently still too high and constitutes an impediment to the development of electric transportation.
- The number of charge-discharge cycles it is capable of supporting, synonymous with life expectancy and an important factor in the economic model for electric vehicles and Plug-in-Hybrids.
In the major industrialized countries, large investments are being made in this area in order to ensure the development of production facilities that can meet these technological and economic challenges over the long term. The French government's National Plan for the development of electric vehicles and Plug-in Hybrids [http://www.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/01-10-09-Lancement-du-plan.html] calls for intensification of France's efforts in this field.