Comprehensive Environmental Technology
Toyota's Leadership in Sustainable Mobility through Eco Powertrain Diversification
Committed to addressing global environmental issues such as the reduction of CO2, NOX and particulate emissions, Toyota has been researching and implementing environmentally-friendly mobility solutions for over 40 years in the quest for the ultimate eco car.
The continuous development of powertrain technology is crucial to improving the environmental performance of vehicles, and Toyota has identified three key goals:
1 Improved fuel efficiency and reduced CO2 emissions
2 Cleaner exhaust emissions for improved air quality
3 Energy diversification to counter decreasing oil reserves
Recognising the importance of energy diversification, Toyota is taking a Comprehensive Environmental Technology approach, developing a wide array of advanced technologies which pave the way for several types of eco car to coexist in the future.
Today, Toyota maintains its environmental lead through the simultaneous development of new technologies on two fronts: Toyota Optimal Drive and Hybrid Synergy Drive®.
Toyota remains convinced that hybrid drive is the core technology for the future. With 2.7 million hybrid vehicles already sold1 worldwide, the company's outstanding record of customer experience gives it a significant lead in the drive towards sustainable mobility through the adaption of Hybrid Synergy Drive® for use in Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV), Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles (FCHV).
However with fossil fuels remaining the primary energy source of the immediate future, Toyota will continue to improve the efficiency of its petrol and diesel engines through the use of Toyota Optimal Drive technologies, which already benefit some 90% of the model line-up.
Despite a model line-up which includes several larger vehicles, Toyota recorded the second lowest European whole fleet CO2 emissions in 2009, with an average of only 130 g/km.
Toyota Optimal Drive
Introduced at the 2008 Paris Motor Show, Toyota Optimal Drive showcases a combination of wide-ranging advanced technologies and internal improvement programmes designed to optimise the balance of performance and driving enjoyment with fuel economy and low emissions.
Incorporated, as standard, in every new Toyota, these diverse core technologies focus on three key aspects of powertrain development:
1 Reduction of engine weight
2 Reduction of mechanical losses
3 Maximisation of fuel efficiency
Reduced Engine Weight
Weight is the enemy of fuel consumption. Toyota has developed super-lightweight and highly compact engine blocks and transmissions. For example, featuring a lightweight resin cylinder head cover and intake manifold, the 1.33 litre petrol engine in the Auris is the lightest and most compact in its class, weighing 13kg less than the engine it replaced.
Reduced Mechanical Losses
Further engine efficiency has been achieved by the painstaking reduction of friction throughout the new powerplant range. Revised roller rocker technology incorporates new camshaft profiles for friction reduction in the valve gear. Enhanced bore circularity and lightweight, coated pistons reduce friction in combustion chambers. Increased engine block rigidity, the adoption of a water jacket spacer and the use of low-viscosity oil further reduce mechanical friction.
Maximised Fuel Efficiency
Every Toyota powertrain incorporates several key technologies to maximise combustion efficiency and fuel economy. Petrol engine efficiency is enhanced through a higher compression ratio, the refinement of intake port and combustion chamber design, and the introduction of piston cooling by oil jet.
Newly developed Valvematic technology further improves performance through the optimisation of valve timing and intake lift across the widest possible engine revolution band. Toyota Valvematic can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 10%, whilst generating some 10% more power than VVT-i.
Toyota's proven D-4D common rail diesel technology reduces intake temperature, allowing for a higher compression ratio and the generation of increased torque. Every D-4D unit in the Toyota Optimal Drive range has now been upgraded with advanced Piezo high-pressure injectors to further improve combustion efficiency.
All Toyota diesel engines are fitted, as standard, with either a Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) or a Diesel Particulate and NOX Reduction system (DPNR), further reducing NOX and PM emissions. Every diesel engine in Toyota's line-up now meets Euro 5 emission standards.
Performance, driving pleasure and fuel efficiency are further enhanced through a range of technologically advanced, highly responsive Multidrive and 6-speed manual transmissions. And a Stop & Start system automatically switches off the engine when the vehicle is stationary, reducing fuel consumption by up to 15% under urban driving conditions.
2010 — A Decade of Proven HSD Technology. Reliability and Customer Satisfaction lays the foundations for Toyota's Full Hybrid Expansion Programme
Hybrid Synergy Drive® - Proven Powertrain Technology
— Delivers record-low fuel consumption, significantly less harmful emissions and exceptionally low running costs
— Switchable EV mode, unique to full hybrid technology, delivers silent, emissions-free, fully electric urban driving
— Three on-demand modes -EV, ECO and POWER- encourage either relaxed and fuel-efficient or engaging, performance-enhanced driving
Hybrid Synergy Drive® is not an alternative to petrol or diesel, but an addition, enhancing the efficiency of existing powertrains. As well as lowering fuel consumption, hybrid vehicles are particularly effective in the reduction of CO2 and NOX emissions.
Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive® offers full hybrid capability, operating in petrol and electric modes alone, as well as a combination of both. It combines best-in-market petrol CO2 emissions and class-leading fuel economy with no compromise on performance.
Hybrid Synergy Drive® features three 'on demand' modes, EV, ECO and POWER, encouraging either relaxed and fuel-efficient or engaging, performance-enhanced driving. Unique to full hybrid technology, its switchable EV mode delivers fully-electric urban driving at speeds of up to 50 km/h, with minimal noise and zero carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxide (NOX) and particulate matter (PM) emissions.
Internal Toyota studies performed with the third generation Prius show that during a typical city trip, when the average speed is below 30 km/h, more than 25% of the journey takes place with the engine off, not only eliminating emissions, but also significantly lowering average fuel consumption.
Building on established reliability and minimising servicing costs, the full hybrid powertrain has no starter motor, alternator or drive belts. The battery is designed to last the life of the car, standard tyres have a life expectancy of over 50,000 km, and the efficiency of the Electronically Controlled Braking (ECB) regeneration system increases brake pad life to over 100,000 km.
Awarded the title "Green Engine of the Year" in 2010, Hybrid Synergy Drive's® outstanding reliability is supported by the Prius' warranty history. It has the lowest warranty cost per unit of any Toyota model, of which only 1.3% relates to hybrid componentry. Proven quality and continued customer approval are witnessed by a decade of top J.D. Power and Associates customer satisfaction survey rankings.
The launch of the Auris HSD in the heart of the C-segment anticipates the introduction of as many as 10 new, Toyota full hybrid models by the early 2010s, with worldwide annual sales of 1 million hybrid vehicles targeted within the same time frame. As early as possible in the 2020s, Toyota aims to offer all its models in Europe with a full hybrid powertrain derivative, making full hybrid technology accessible to a wide range of customers.
Hybrid Synergy Drive® system architecture and operation
Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive® series/parallel full hybrid system features a 1.8 litre petrol engine, a powerful electric motor, a generator, a high performance battery, a power control unit, and a power split device which employs a planetary gear set to combine and re-allocate power from the engine, electric motor and generator according to operational requirements.
Key to the successful installation of Hybrid Synergy Drive® within a front-engined platform, the electric motor, generator and power split device are all housed in one lightweight, highly compact transmission casing directly comparable in size to that of a conventional gearbox.
The hybrid system's petrol engine operates on the Atkinson cycle, in which compression and expansion are asymmetrical and the valves close late, delaying compression. This creates a high expansion ratio for less compression, reducing intake and exhaust energy losses and converting combustion energy to engine power more effectively. As a result the exhaust temperature is lower than that of a conventional engine.
A cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) system further reduces engine operating temperatures. And, together, these technologies minimise the need for fuel enrichment to protect the catalytic converter from overheating, thereby improving fuel economy and lowering emissions.
Over the course of any journey, Hybrid Synergy Drive® operates in several different modes to maximise the vehicle's overall efficiency: at rest, the engine stops automatically to conserve fuel.
Under operating conditions of low engine efficiency such as start up and low to mid-range speeds, the vehicle runs on the electric motor alone, thus eradicating CO2 and NOX emissions.
Under normal driving conditions, power allocation is constantly adjusted between engine and electric motor to combine optimum performance with maximum fuel efficiency. During constant-speed cruising, the engine alone will normally power the vehicle. But when additional power is needed, for example during sudden acceleration, the motor operates in tandem with the engine to boost hybrid system output.
The hybrid system also incorporates Electronically Controlled Braking (ECB) with a regeneration system. During deceleration and under braking, the electric motor acts as high-output generator to effect regenerative braking. This optimises energy management in the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system by recovering kinetic energy (normally wasted as heat) as electrical energy for storage in the high performance battery.
Battery power level is constantly managed via an engine driven generator, making it unnecessary to recharge the system from an external source.
Prius — Ahead of its Time
— With cumulative European sales of Prius topping the 100,000 mark in May 2008, the figure has doubled to 200,000 in just two years
— In one decade, Prius' HSD system maximum power has increased by over 30%, fuel consumption has fallen by over 23% to 3.9 l/100 km and CO2 emissions have been reduced by almost 26% to 89 g/km
— Numerous, segment-first high technology features including head-up display and solar-powered ventilation
Finding increasing acceptance as a mainstream model, the full hybrid Prius celebrates the major milestone of its first decade on the European market with a dramatic acceleration in sales performance.
With cumulative European sales of Prius topping the 100,000 mark in May 2008, the figure has now doubled to 200,000 in just two years. The third generation Prius has been Japan's best-selling car for every month since its launch in May 2009. Cumulative global sales of Prius are expected to exceed 2 million units by the autumn of 2010.
Prius has been consistently ahead of its time in addressing environmental issues, leading the field in the pursuit of improved fuel efficiency and a reduction in CO2, NOX and particulate emissions. The last decade has witnessed a fall in the fuel consumption of its Hybrid Synergy Drive® powertrain of more than 23% and a reduction in CO2 emissions of almost 26% from 120 g/km to just 89 g/km. Yet maximum system power has simultaneously increased by 30%.
The Prius addresses not only CO2 emissions, but also air quality. Even operating in normal drive mode, the Prius generates significantly lower NOX emissions than any comparable diesel vehicle. In EV drive mode it generates zero CO2, NOX and PM emissions.
Customer perceptions of full hybrid technology have evolved significantly since the first Prius was introduced more than a decade ago. First generation owners were won over by the car's unique concept and technological innovation. Second generation owners were enthusiastic early adopters of niche technologies, remaining passionate about the Prius product concept.
Third generation customers recognise the Prius as a true mainstream vehicle with on-road performance and dynamic abilities which now bear comparison with any D segment competitor.
Each generation of Prius has introduced new, high technology features to the segment ahead of its time. Amongst the third generation Prius' numerous new technologies are a world-first combination of a solar powered ventilation system and remote controlled air conditioning, a head-up display, touch sensitive Touch Tracer steering wheel-mounted switches, an Intelligent Parking Assist System (IPA) and a pre-crash safety system.
Moreover, the Prius maintains a peerless reputation for reliability and is exceptional value for money. Best-in-market petrol CO2 emissions and combined cycle fuel economy of 3.9 l/100 km offer Prius customers significant, pan-European tax incentives, inner city congestion charge exemption and exceptionally low running costs.
In August 2010, for the 5th time since 2004, Prius was ranked the Most Environmental Car, by the German Association for Sustainable Mobility, Verkehrsclub Deutschland (VCD), on this occasion sharing 1st place with the Auris HSD.
Auris HSD - The First, and Only, Full Hybrid Powertrain in the C-Segment
— A first step towards Toyota's full hybrid roll-out across the mainstream market
— Auris is the first C-segment model to offer a choice of petrol, diesel or full hybrid powertrains.
— The world's most affordable full hybrid, combining urban driving efficiency, significant tax benefits and low cost of ownership
The Auris HSD is equipped with the first and only full hybrid powertrain in the highly competitive C-segment. The introduction of Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive® to the range makes the Auris unique within the segment, it being the first model to offer a choice of petrol, diesel or full hybrid powertrains.
Exclusively designed for the European market and built at Toyota Motor Manufacturing UK in Burnaston, the Auris HSD drives like no other car in its class. The everyday usability, driving comfort and remarkable quietness of its Hybrid Synergy Drive® powertrain will further contribute to the important shift in customer perceptions of hybrid technology initiated by Prius. They will appreciate the urban driving efficiency, low cost of ownership and significant tax benefits of the world's most affordable full hybrid technology.
Capable of operating both independently and in combination, the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system's 1.8 litre VVT-i petrol engine and electric motor generate a maximum system output of 136 DIN hp, equipping the Auris HSD with seamless 0-100 km/h acceleration in 11.4 seconds and a maximum speed of 180 km/h — a best-in-class performance for vehicles with sub-100 g/km CO2 emissions.
Conversely, the Auris full hybrid returns class-leading fuel consumption figures of only 3.8 l/100 km in the European homologation combined cycle and remarkably low, highly tax-efficient CO2 emissions of just 89 g/km — a figure unmatched by any other C-segment car.
The Auris HSD combines the practical, flexible packaging of a conventional 5-door C-segment car with all the advantages of Hybrid Synergy Drive®, including an integral, Eco driving support monitor to help customers develop relaxed, fuel-efficient and engaging driving techniques which maximise system efficiency.
As with every Toyota full hybrid, the Auris HSD has been designed to minimise running costs. Combining lower parts pricing with shorter service times, its maintenance costs over 100,000 km are on a par with those of a 1.0 litre Toyota Yaris.
FT-CH Concept — Future Toyota Compact Hybrid Concept
— Dedicated full hybrid - the latest addition to Toyota's advanced concept technology
— Demonstrating Toyota's intention to expand HSD technology to the small compact car segment
— Compact, urban friendly package, appealing to a younger customer base
Reinforcing Toyota's commitment to introduce HSD technology to a far wider customer base over the next decade, the FT-CH concept is the company's first representation of a full hybrid vehicle for the small compact car segment.
Just 3,895 mm long, the FT-CH's compact proportions hint at a manoeuvrability and responsiveness ideally suited to the urban environment, whilst its generous, 2,550 mm wheelbase provides spacious accommodation for four passengers.
With styling inspired by the 8-bit microprocessor technology that dominated the 80s video game industry, the FT-CH's exterior design incorporates the attention to aerodynamic detail which hallmarks every Toyota full hybrid. The wheels feature white rim clips and matt black hubs designed to minimise air turbulence.
Placing the emphasis on quality, simplicity and affordability, the interior has been designed with the minimum of complex componentry in mind. The dashboard is of a simple, three-piece construction, the interior door panel has just six parts and the seatback and squab frames are formed from the same moulding.
A racing-style instrument cluster and steering wheel have been adopted to appeal to a younger, more sporting customer, and the FT-CH full hybrid's Eco driving support monitor features an innovative, multi-coloured wind turbine display.
Future Sustainable Mobility based on Core HSD Technology
Toyota believes it is important to follow more than one path towards sustainable mobility, diverse energy sources and battery technology paving the way for several types of eco cars to coexist in the future.
In this context, Hybrid Synergy Drive's® modular technology makes it the ideal platform for adaptation to use with several different power sources: Plug-in Hybrid Vehicles (PHV), Electric Vehicles (EV) and Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles (FCHV).
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid — The Best of Both Electric and Full Hybrid Worlds
The further development of electric cars as urban commuters is currently handicapped by the weight and size of the large capacity batteries required to offer a satisfactory range, and the lack of an adequate recharging infrastructure.
Toyota therefore believes that plug-in hybrid technology is the most feasible short- to mid-term solution to the electrification of powertrains. Thanks to its alternative, on board power source, a PHV can be used beyond the electric driving range.
The Prius Plug-in Hybrid represents a significant expansion of the Hybrid Synergy Drive® system's capabilities. It addresses the specific needs of urban-based customers with a significantly extended, fully-electric EV driving range for shorter journeys, while the hybrid powertrain's petrol engine awards the vehicle true long range capability. Moreover, the affordability of its proven HSD technology will make it widely accessible.
Because lithium-ion batteries offer a considerable increase in EV driving range with no adverse weight or packaging issues, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid marks their introduction for the first time in a Toyota hybrid vehicle. Rapid charging is a further lithium-ion asset the battery pack of a Prius Plug-in Hybrid can be fully recharged in 1.5 hours from a standard, 230 V household outlet.
The lithium-ion battery pack gives the vehicle a maximum speed of 100 km/h when driven in EV mode. With battery fully charged, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid's EV mode range is approximately 20 km.
The Hybrid Synergy Drive® powertrain generates a total system power output of 136 DIN hp, providing seamless acceleration from 0-100 km/h in 11.4 seconds and a top speed of 180 km/h.
Conversely, with the vehicle's overall fuel efficiency significantly enhanced by its extended EV range, the Prius Plug-in Hybrid returns a remarkably low fuel consumption figure of only 2.6 l/100 km in the European homologation combined cycle — a reduction of 30% over that of the Prius. Furthermore, CO2 emissions have also fallen to an unprecedented low of just 59 g/km.
600 Prius Plug-in Hybrids Worldwide - 200 in Europe
With the goal of bringing the Prius Plug-in Hybrid to the market in Europe and globally in 2012, some 600 vehicles are already involved in limited lease projects worldwide - one third of them in Europe.
The lease projects are designed to assess every aspect of real-world PHV use, address customer feedback and verify the new Prius Plug-in Hybrid's overall environmental and technological performance before it goes on sale.
Simultaneous research into public-private development of recharging infrastructure is fundamental to the viability of any electric vehicle. To that end, Toyota has an ongoing partnership with French energy company, EDF, and has established additional partnerships with other local authorities and energy companies in Europe.
Toyota's European limited lease project has already begun in Strasbourg, France, with the three year leasing of 100 Plug-in Prius Hybrids. 20 vehicles have been introduced in the UK this year, and a further 30 in Germany. Spain, Norway, Belgium and Portugal are also participating in the project. In total, Toyota has leased about 200 vehicles to some 20 European countries since mid 2010.
Toyota has also introduced the Prius Plug-in Hybrid on a global scale, with participants including Canada, United States of America, Japan, Australia and New Zealand.
Early customer feedback from France is encouraging. Since they began driving the vehicle in April, a majority of surveyed users have reported that the Prius Plug-in Hybrid has already exceeded their expectations, in many cases significantly. Users cite three key reasons for this: the vehicle's low CO2 emissions, its low fuel consumption, and its technological features.
The majority of users drive less then 40 km per day, making the Prius Plug-in Hybrid's extended EV range ideal for their needs, with one, 1.5 hour full recharge easily accommodated during working hours. They find the car easy to use, regardless of whether or not they have previous experience of full electric drive.
All drivers recorded lower fuel consumption than that achieved with their normal cars. Furthermore, half of the drivers adapted their driving behaviour to fully exploit the benefits of full hybrid drive, resulting in an even better environmental performance.
Battery technology — fundamental to the further development of HSD
Toyota is fully committed to the most rapid possible advances in battery technology. It has been developing in-house battery technology since the early 1990s.
In June 2008, the company established its own Battery Research Division at the Higashi-fuji Technical Centre, to accelerate the development of next-generation batteries. In January 2010, a Battery Production Engineering Development Division was established at the same location, bringing the number of engineers dedicated to battery development to over 100.
Toyota's joint-venture partnership with Primearth EV Energy (PEVE) has also been a key element of its success in the advancement of hybrid technology. PEVE's two production facilities in Japan are capable of producing 1.1 million battery packs per annum.
Battery technology has progressed significantly in the ten years since the introduction of Toyota's full-electric RAV4 EV and e-Com vehicles. The durability and reliability of nickel-metal hydride perfectly suits Toyota's Hybrid Synergy Drive®, and the superior volume energy density of lithium-ion offers improved EV range and high speed recharging for PHVs.
Each successive generation of HSD technology has seen a reduction in battery pack size, weight and cost, yet improved efficiency. And Toyota RandD is investing heavily in the development of a more accessible generation of lithium-ion batteries for hybrid vehicles, PHVs, EVs and FCHVs.
With 2.7 million batteries sold to date1, major challenges still remain. For instance, the cost of lithium ion batteries needs to be reduced significantly, or a more affordable alternative found.
Electric Vehicles - for shorter distance mobility
Toyota believes in the feasibility of EVs as a primary mode of transportation for shorter distances, and a mid term solution towards sustainable mobility.
Electricity has high potential as an alternative energy source to oil. It can be supplied easily, and produced from renewable sources such as solar, wind and hydro-electric power.
Toyota has been strengthening its knowledge and engineering capability in the field of electric vehicles, and continues develop short range EVs for commercialisation.
On stage at the 2010 Paris Motorshow, the FT-EV II concept is a compact EV with a top-speed of 100 km/h and a driving range of over 90 km. Toyota plans to launch a lithium-ion battery equipped EV in the United States in 2012.
In May 2010, Toyota Motor Corporation and Tesla Motors Inc announced their intention to cooperate in the development of electric vehicles and parts, as well as production system and engineering support. In July, the two companies initiated the development of an EV combining the Toyota RAV4 model with a Tesla electric powertrain.
With the aim of marketing the new EV in the United States in 2012, Tesla plans to produce and deliver a fleet of prototypes to Toyota for evaluation within this year. The first prototype has already been built and is now undergoing testing.
Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicles — one step closer to the ultimate eco car
In terms of distance travelled per unit of fuel and CO2 emitted per kilometer, FCHVs have a higher well-to-wheel efficiency than hybrids, any conventional petrol or diesel engine, and even electric vehicles.
A fuel cell produces electricity through a chemical reaction between hydrogen (stored in the vehicle) and oxygen (from the air), with water vapour the only emission. Its structure comprises electrodes and polyelectrolyte films sandwiched between separators. When hundreds of cells are stacked together, the result is a fuel cell 'stack', known as an FC stack.
A fuel cell can convert as much as 80% of hydrogen's energy into usable power -about twice the efficiency possible with current generation petrol engines.
Toyota began work on FCHVs in 1992, developing its own hydrogen fuel cells and high-pressure hydrogen storage tanks in house. The company now applies its own HSD technology to FCHV development, replacing petrol engines with FC stacks, and petrol fuel compartments with high pressure hydrogen tanks.
Toyota's latest fuel cell hybrid, the FCHV-adv, is a Highlander equipped with a powertrain based on this HSD-derived technology. It features an in-house developed, polymer electrolyte, 90 kW FC stack, a 21 kW Ni-MH battery, a 90 kW / 260 Nm electric motor and four tanks, each storing hydrogen at a pressure of 70 MPa.
With a maximum 10 minute refuelling time, the FCHV-adv will travel up to 790 km on a single tank of hydrogen at speeds of up to 155 km/h. Operating in temperatures as low as -30° C, it offers a completely silent drive and generates zero CO2, with water vapour the sole emission.
Continuing its research into improved battery durability and reliability, significant cost reduction, improved well-to-wheel CO2 emissions and the implementation of a hydrogen fuelling infrastructure, Toyota aims to begin the commercialisation of fuel cell vehicles in 2015.
Hydrogen Infrastructure through Partnership Cooperation
A smooth shift to a hydrogen-based society will be a significant undertaking. Reaching a consensus on from what to make hydrogen, how to deliver it and how to implement a fuelling infrastructure depends on the combined efforts of all sectors of society, including governments, private companies and research and standardisation institutions.
To that end -and in anticipation of the imminent commercialisation of a number of FCHVs- Toyota, Ford, Daimler, General Motors, Honda, Hyundai/Kia and Renault/Nissan signed a Letter of Understanding in September 2009 calling for oil and energy companies and government organisations to cooperate in the creation of hydrogen infrastructure networks of sufficient density in Europe, the United States, Japan and Korea by 2015.
At the start of 2010, Toyota joined the Clean Energy Partnership (CEP) an alliance of 13 leading companies dedicated to establishing hydrogen as the fuel of the future, paving the way to an era of zero-emissions mobility. Members include major technology, oil and energy companies, as well as the majority of German car manufacturers and two leading public transport companies.
Through the participation of local governments in providing pilot regions for the first demonstration projects, the declared objective of the CEP is to increase the proportion of hydrogen produced using renewable energy to 50%. First initiatives in German states mark the beginning of a nationwide programme to develop and test hydrogen refuelling infrastructure. Toyota will contribute with five FCHV-adv fuel cell hybrid vehicles to the partnership by 2011.
In the United States, 100 FCHV-adv vehicles are being placed in various nationwide demonstration programmes over the next three years, including one with the California Fuel Cell Partnership.